Große Auswahl an Reynolds 46. Vergleiche Preise für Reynolds 46 und finde den besten Preis 853 has my vote - it'll be a great fun new bike and you get to feel good at how sensible you've been! The Ti runs the risk of you wishing you'd just waited and saved the cash. I've had both ti. Reynolds 853 vs titanium. The 853 E-Tourer Pinion is fitted with a Supernova front light, Tubus rear rack and low-riders and SKS-Bluemels mudguards. Nothing holds its value like high-end steel. 5V' grade titaniumReynolds 853 is made from a seamless steel alloy originally developed for the side impact beams on high performance cars. Reynolds 921: Austenic Cold-Worked 21-6-9 Stainless Steel: NA: NA: As with all steels (ferrous and stainless), the stiffness modulus is high, allowing the use of.
Due to the superior mechanical properties of 853 tubing, there are several benefits which will translate directly to the cyclist. The wall thickness of 853 has been reduced to 0.4 mm, a full 0.1 mm thinner than Reynolds other top of the line 753 tubing. This translates into a frame weight of under 3 pounds 5 ounces for a 56 cm frame. The final significant advantage is the increased stiffness of the frame and its ability to transmit all of the cyclist power into forward motion However steel is density challenged - frames are usually heavier than their aluminium or titanium equivalents. Steel will rust if neglected - though frames can be treated and manufacturers such as Reynolds produce stainless tubing that largely negates this problem. Most cycling steel alloys are based on 4130 Chromoly. Heat treating can improve material properties - that's heating and cooling the material in a specific way. Reynolds 525 and 725 use the same base alloy. Reynolds 853 vs titanium Reynolds 853 vs titanium
. An Alu Rohren wird das 7005 (Al-Zn-Legierung), das 6061 (Al-Si-Mg-Legierung) und das X-100 (Al-Li-Legierung) angeboten. In Titan gibt es die Rohre 6Al-4V (Stainless ELI Grade) und 2.5V (Nahtlos). Das MZM Electron besteht aus einer Magnesium-Legierung Reynolds 853 vs titanium. Otherwise the 853 tube set is not a soft metal-but Reynolds makes about 4 or 5 different thicknesses of 853; thus if you have their lightest racing 853 then that tubing is very thin and could be dented by clamping. Among the most popular bicycle frame materials as of 2013 is 4130 chrome-moly steel, but its dominance in the marketplace has not stifled innovation in other alloys. It can be built from a choice of Reynolds tubesets including 631, 725 and 853. Our. Reynolds 853 vs titanium Merlin Titanium (without cracks - lifetime warranties no longer valid after buyout) Raleigh Special Products Division 853 (hard-tail or full suspension) Raleigh lugged and brazed 531 frames from the late 1980s (Moonshine, Thunder Road, White Lightning, and others) Raleigh USA Technium Chill. Ridgeback 704 XT (and similar) Rock Lobster / Amazon. Rocky Mountain Fusion. Rocky Mountain. Hailing from Fort Collins, Colorado, the frame is based around TIG welded Reynolds 853 tubing, and takes advantage of a tapered steel headtube and thru-axles at both ends
There was a titanium bike, an aluminum one, as well as steel frames made with Reynolds 853 tubing that are still deemed superb by steel aficionados. Half-something and half-carbon In 2003 the entire LeMond line changed as all the higher-priced bikes then became half-something and half-carbon, representing a big infusion of engineering into the brand. The upper half of the frames featured. Several frame builders use this same quote in describing the advantages of 853 over typical 4130: Reynolds 853 when introduced in 1995, set new standards for steel bicycle tubing. The strength to weight ratio of 853 is equal to that of quality titanium frames
Reynolds 853; Reynolds 921; Reynolds 953; Website: reynoldstechnology.biz: Reynolds Technology is a manufacturer of tubing for bicycle frames and other bicycle components based in Birmingham, England established in 1898. History. The Reynolds 531SL fork blade decal showing on a set of 531SL fork blades. The Reynolds Tube Company was founded in 1898 by John Reynolds in Birmingham, England, but. Reynolds 725: next level up, air hardened and heat treated, with thinner wall thicknesses available; Reynolds 853: very high end steel, thinner still, and lighter; Reynolds 953: a variant of stainless steel, this one rivals Ti and carbon fiber on weight, but with the ride of stee I chose stainless steel over titanium as ultimately I found titanium felt a bit too 'sloppy' for racing. It was exceedingly comfortable but didn't feel as fast as carbon fibre, particularly when sprinting. This may have been due to too much 'give' in the frame around the bottom bracket. Conversely, I found 953 to be very stiff but without the 'dead' feel of aluminium and some carbon frames
Reynolds specialises in innovative high performance metallic cycle frame tube sets, producing some of the lightest & strongest cycle tubing on the market. 853 is heat-treated to give high strength and damage resistance, and the steel properties allow thin walls to be used, so that lower weight but fatigue-resistant structures can be made Reynolds 853 seemed to be everywhere 5 years ago, but most small handmade builders will usually use a combination of steel tubing from several manufacturers such as Reynolds, True Temper, Columbus, and Dedacciai depending on the type of bike they are making and the riders weight and riding preferences. Its not unusual to have a frame with one manufacturers tubing in the mainframe and another's in the stays. Also, Reynolds has now taken another stab at stainless steel (Columbus had. But, I can tell you I own two bikes that are the same manufacturer/model with the same frame geometries, one made of reynolds 853 steel and one made of titanium. What I can tell you is this. When I was overweight, I preferred riding the steel bike, as it felt snappier, stiffer, better power transmission, and was still very comfortable. 35 pounds lighter, I prefer riding the titanium one. At. Utilising the same chemistry as 853, Reynolds 631 is cold-worked and also has the advantages of air-hardening after welding. The alloy is a development on our famous 531 range with 10% higher strength. For cycling use, this provides tough, durable and comfortable frames particularly suitable for long distance riding, ATB and BMX . It has recently become available for touring and race fork blades
Mark Reilly, of Nerve Bicycles, Brighton, is building a gravel bike of Reynolds 853 and Columbus tubing. The increased complexity can mean you have to use different brazing at different joins. Reynolds 753 was essentially a heat-treated version of the company's familiar 531 manganese alloy steel. The heat treating boosted the tensile strength of the steel by about 50% and made it possible to draw the tubing much thinner than regular 531. Some versions of the tubing were drawn down as thin as 0.3mm in the center sections of butted tubes! It was claimed that the result could drop more than a pound from the weight of a bicycle frame without sacrificing strength Reynolds steel. 520 vs 631 vs 853 Bikes > Join the conversation. × Log In. Username or Email. Password. Forgot your password? Keep me logged in. Log In or Create an account. × Modal title. OK. Starter 6 posts Jseverson218 Starter 6 posts. Share; Jseverson218 Starter 1558630477. Hello all, I am looking into a steel gravel bike. I like the Jamis Renegade. I know their low end one is 520 and.
One of the major improvements we've made over our current Reynolds 853 Steel version is tyre clearance! With a 29″ wheel you can fit a big volume and big tread 2.4 tyres with loads of mud clearance and on 27.5+ you can fit up to full 3″ tyres with good mud clearance! This is all down to the added clearance from our newly designed CNC'd drive-side chain-stay Yoke. The Sherpa Ti with its. Steel tubing for Cycle-tourists, Reynolds 531, 520, 853, True Temper - confused? Cycling Article Index. A small favour. We hope you enjoy reading this short article and will go on to read many more. This website exists both as an information hub for cyclists - (and we offer free advice by email) - but also as a commercial site to sell our cycling holidays in France. For 29 years we've been. According to Reynolds, the interaction between the component metals results in a fine grain structure that forms with air-cooling without the traditional quenching (fast cooling in water or oil) process. And heat-treatment to the 853 specification raises the yield strength for the entire tube, increasing dent and impact resistance. The heat treatment gives high strength and damage resistance, and the steel properties allow thin walls to be used, so that lower weight but fatigue. Looking For Great Deals On Reynolds 853? From Everything To The Very Thing. All On eBay. Get Reynolds 853 With Fast And Free Shipping For Many Items On eBay Reynolds 853:This is a modern and stiff tubeset with a strength to weight ratio that is similar to titanium. However, due to this stiffness, it is recommended that 725 or 631 is used for the forks.
Hersteller Rennstahl aus Reynolds 853 Stahlrohren, hier mit Pinion-Getriebe. Das abgebildete Komplettbike kostet 4250 Euro. Nun legt die junge Marke eine Rennsport-Variante für den Mountainbike-Einsatz nach. Der Rahmen besteht aus rostfreiem Edelstahl (Rohrsatz: Reynolds 931) und kommt somit - wie die Titan-Bikes - völlig ohne Lackierung aus. Auf die handgebürsteten Rahmen werden einzig. Frame material: Reynolds 853 steel and Pace Chromoly: Highlights: Heritage brand still making stunning bikes 30-plus years later: Find out more information here: Pace Cycles has been a staple of. Carbon, Aluminum, titanium, true temper steel, and 853 Reynolds steel. My first bike was a true temper steel frame by Lemond. Then I bought another a 853 Reynolds Lemond Zurich. I then bought a Lemond Zurich carbon. I ride the 853 Reynolds Lemond Zurich most of the time and it is my first preference. Why? Because it is light weight steel and as they say steel is real! I would gladly sell my. Durability - We should all be riding titanium. Value - Custom steel bikes are luxury items, as are high end carbon ones. Do people throw down $4K for a Pegoretti because they think it's ultimately the most cost effective choice. A CAAD9 is a good value. The complete bike with Ultegra costs less than all but the cheapest custom steel frames, and it will last a long, long time. Carbon is not a.
Es ist der mit Abstand steifste Titan-Rennradrahmen am Markt, dies sowohl im Tretlager- also auch im Steuerrohr-Bereich. Die Benchmark. Punkt. Falkenjagd Aristos ST Meilensammler. Einsatzbereich: Touren, Straße, Alltag Rahmengewicht: ca. 1.500 g (M) Preis: ab € 6.292,-Mehr Erfahren Jetzt Konfigurieren . Ein Rennrad ist mehr ist als das Mittel zum Zweck. Es ist ein Gefühl, eine. Rennstahl ist der Stahlableger von Falkenjagd, die eigentlich in Titan machen (Fahrrad kam erst spät, eigentlich ist die Titansparte so im Flugzeugbereich zu finden) und halt noch relativ neu, mhhh, 2 Jahre, glaube ich, ist Rennstahl erst auf dem Markt.Gefahren bin ich allerdings weder Rennstahl noch Falkenjagd, mir ist Falkenjagd einfach nur im Gedächtnis geblieben, weil die tatsächlich.
Reynolds 853 is made from a seamless steel alloy originally developed for the side impact beams on high performance cars. The term air-hardening refers to a special category of steels that when welded and allowed to cool in air, actually get harder in the weld area. Because this is normally the critical zone for fatigue life, 853 frames will out-perform conventional steel alloys due to. Reynolds 953, Reynolds 853, Reynolds 753, Reynolds 653, Reynolds 531, Reynolds 528, Reynolds 501, Reynolds 453, Reynolds 401, Reynolds etc. Reynolds 953 und Reynolds 853 Rohre werden sogar heute noch von Rahmenbauern verwendet. Diese Stahlrohre haben so hochwertige Legierungen, dass es quasi Edelstahl ist und den Attributen von Titan nahe kommt. Reynolds 953, 853, und 753 Rohre, können jedoch.
Reynolds 853 vs titanium . Search. Reynolds 853 vs titanium Merlin Titanium (without cracks - lifetime warranties no longer valid after buyout) Raleigh Special Products Division 853 (hard-tail or full suspension) Raleigh lugged and brazed 531 frames from the late 1980s (Moonshine, Thunder Road, White Lightning, and others) Raleigh USA Technium Chill. Ridgeback 704 XT (and similar) Rock Lobster / Amazon. Rocky Mountain Fusion. Rocky Mountain. Tag Archives: reynolds 853 Uncategorized. Ten of the best vintage - retro steel mountain bikes. January 6, 2015 admin 7 Comments. Steel is arguably the best material for building mountain bike frames. Despite being somewhat unfashionable these days, what with carbon becoming nearly as strong and new aluminium alloys becoming more robust, steel is still the choice of frame material for. . Motobecane Mulekick gravel bike rocks Reynolds 853 & impressive build for $1,799. By. Greg Kopecky - November 13, 2019. Facebook. Twitter. Pinterest. WhatsApp. Digg. ReddIt. Mix. Email. Motobecane announced the Mulekick 853, a steel gravel bike with Shimano GRX components. They're offering the complete bike in partnership with BikesDirect.com for a steal at $1,799 - including DT Swiss.
Die frames hebben beide een heel andere geometrie (comfortabeler, minder direct, normale torsiestijfheid (853/Avenue) vs stijve fiets met hoge bracketstijfheid, torsiestijfheid en strak stuurgedrag (titanium/Strada)) De Avenue heeft lage aluminium velgen, de Strada hogere Carbon velgen There are several developments from Reynolds to answer the weldability issue. There are newer air-hardening formulations that stand up to welding -- like 631 which Reynolds claims is the direct descendent of 531, and heat-treated 853, which is supposed to have the benefits of 753, with even more strength, and without the need for special frame-builders' certification Titanium is dead expensive so there's only a small amount of the market that will actually go for titanium, but it's the best material for a hardtail regardless of what anybody else says. It quite evidently is. It's tougher, it has higher elasticity. When you're manufacturing in it you're putting material into it, you're increasing diameters so it's like plasticine, you can be.
The 853 volare frameset is £1099 and the 953 £2099. So if I could pick up a 753 for sub £300 and fit a decent fork to achieve 7/10s of the ride feel of the two others than I would be happy at that. Going to make a concerted effort before March to ride both the 853 Volare, Equilibrium Ti and a 725 frameset Longer wheelbase coupled with relaxed geometry all in 853 Reynolds steel. The result is a stunning ride. Compliant while lively. Nimble yet stable and predictable. The ride is as good as or better than high dollar custom steel frames that are all the rage these days. And guess what steel they often use? Yep, 853. By 2018 standards, the only thing holding the original package back vs modern. We chose to use Reynolds 631 instead of 853 for the chainstays because 631 is not heat-treated and therefore slightly easier to dimples and shape. We don't gain any weight versus a heat treated version as the butt thickness offered by Reynolds is the same for both, in this case a 0.8/0.6mm butt. With the same theory of a rounder tube tube being better for the job, we also prototyped the. I owned and rode a Reynolds frame (Rocky Mountain Blizzard) for many years and loved it. Their 'air hardened' Reynolds 853, (as on the Blizzard), and the supreme Reynolds 953 are as light as the best aluminium, strong as steel, corrosion resistant and have the wonderful ride characteristics inherent in chromoly frames. The downside is they can be very expensive. Titanium also has many of the. The titanium industry is growing with the growth of the aviation industry at an average annual level of 8%. The world's annual production of titanium alloy processing materials amounts to over 40,000 tonnes, and approximately 30 titanium alloy forms are available. Shipping field. Boats and other appliances have long been immersed in water so that the components need to be resistant to.
Reynolds 853 offers uncompromising performance combined with superb ride quality and excellent strength to weight ratio. The strength to weight ratio equals that of Titanium frames. After the frame is constructed, 853 actually increases in strength as the frame cools (air hardening). The unique air hardening properties of 853 provides additional stiffness through reduced micro yielding at the. Reynolds 853 vs titanium Reynolds 853 vs titaniu Reynolds 853 Vs Carbon. Pro PLT Alloy Stem. Its heat treatment increases fatigue resistance, making it incredibly strong and impact resistant. 6mm top-tube, 28. According to Tony Hadland's book Raleigh: Past and Presence of an Iconic Bicycle Brand , Reynolds 753 had a tensile strength of about 75 tons/in². Tom Donhou is one of the new wave of. 1995 - Reynolds introduce 853. 1996 - US company Coyote Sports Inc. acquires and rebrands Reynolds (from TI). 1999-2000 - Coyote files for Chapter 11; Reynolds Composites starts making carbon forks in the US, while Keith Noronha leads a management buyout of the steel side of Reynolds and forms Reynolds Cycle Technology. The Cold Wor Reynolds 853 builds a light, lively and fantastically robust front end, and includes our custom ride tuned Ovalform top tube which helps to deliver that famous ride feel. The frames' steel construction is compliant and naturally ground moulding, extracting grip and feedback from the trail where you thought there was none. Pair it to our custom sized and shaped heat treated cromoly rear end for.
Der Reynolds 853 Rahmensatz lässt nicht zu wünschen übrig und wird sich schnell als mehr. Expedition. Böttcher. Mit dem Expedition haben wir ein Reiserad entwickelt, welches die idealen Voraussetzungen für sämtliche Entdeckungstouren vereint. Das Expedition bietet sowohl auf dem Asphalt, als mehr. Trekk Lite Diamant. Böttcher. Egal ob für den Alltagseinsatz oder für längere. LeMond Racing Cycles is a bicycle manufacturer founded by Greg LeMond, an American winner of the Tour de France.LeMond offered a geometry based on the racing frames he used in competition, which had a longer top tube and wheelbase in an otherwise traditional lightweight steel frame Allmountain/Enduro neu & gebraucht kaufen und verkaufen auf Bikemarkt.MTB-News.de Riesige Auswahl - gute Preise aktuell 19233 Artikel onlin
Niner has really nailed this one. With the success of their RLT, they've just issued a steel version, marketed towards bike packing, camping and light touring. While it's not a full blown touring bike, you can strap a few bags to it, as well as a rear rack and take off into the wilderness. With a geometry dialed in for gravel, cross racing, all-road conditions and even some singletrack. Year: 1999 Frame Material: Reynolds 853 Air Hardened Steel Fork: ProfileSC Carbon Fiber Fork Steer Tube Diameter: 1 inch Head Set Included(I would Replace) Crank Set: Shimano FC-6500( Nearly New. Only a couple of miles of use) BB Width: 68mm- Shimano BB-6500 Included. Nearly New. Only a couple of miles of use) Seatpost Size: 27.2mm(Not Included) Seat Clamp(Original Seat Post Clamp Included. Lynskey Performance Best Rated Titanium Bikes and Frames: Now Offering Zero Interest Financing, 30-day No Hassle Return Policy, 100% Satisfaction Guarantee, Hand-Built in the USA, Lifetime Warranty. Buy Direct Online Der Reynolds 853 Rahmensatz lässt nicht zu wünschen übrig und wird sich schnell als plus. Expedition. Böttcher. Mit dem Expedition haben wir ein Reiserad entwickelt, welches die idealen Voraussetzungen für sämtliche Entdeckungstouren vereint. Das Expedition bietet sowohl auf dem Asphalt, als plus. Trekk Lite Diamant. Böttcher. Egal ob für den Alltagseinsatz oder für längere. Reynolds 531 631 725 753 853. History. The Reynolds Tube Company was founded in 1889 by John Reynolds in Birmingham, England, but traces its origins back to 1841 when John Reynolds set up a company manufacturing nails. In 1897, the company patented the process for making butted tubes, which are thicker at the ends than in the middle, this allowed frame builders to create frames that were both.
Finden Sie Top-Angebote für Telaio Vantuyl bici MTB titanio e carbonio titanium bike frame mountain bike bei eBay. Kostenlose Lieferung für viele Artikel Over 80% New And Buy It Now; This Is The New eBay. Shop For Top Products Now. Get Reynolds 853 With Fast And Free Shipping For Many Items On eBay Reynolds 853 This seamless air-hardening steel tube sets new standards for professional cycle frames and proves that steel still has a future at the highest levels. It is suitable for TIG welding and brazing, using lugged or lugless construction. The production process ensures tight tolerance, gauge tubes. The strength to weight ratio of 853 is close to that of quality titanium frames. A. Shand's Skinnymalinky uses a mix of Reynolds 853 and Columbus tubing, with small diameter round tubes and a non-tapered 1 1/8in head tube. It's very traditional in its appearance, but the quality and detail is first class. The headset and bottom bracket use external bearings and the gear cables are routed externally, though the rear brake cable is routed inside the top tube. There are neat. Things really step up a notch with Reynolds 853. This stuff is a lot harder than 725 and with this immense strength comes incredible stiffness. Where does that count? Power transfer. Put a sprint effort in on an 853 frame and you get instant gratification. You still know you're riding a steel bike, but you now look at carbon bikes and wonder why people bother. Reynolds 931 is pretty much just.
The flagship Reynolds 853 tubeset offers a pleasingly comfortable and lively ride quality, matched with a decent build kit for the money. It's available with Shimano 105 for £1,799.99 or. Some figures; the top steels ( reynolds 953, columbus XCR) have a tensile strength of over 2000 MpA. My frame, a zero replica from Dedacaia ( sic) has 1400 MpA. The most you will get out of Ti is around 1000MpA. Carbon is far below this, (Alu is around 700 MpA) and is used mainly for Cat 3 and above racers. Lightweight non racers generally use them for weekend blasts, never or seldom as a. Der speziell auf den Bosch Mittelmotor abgestimmte Rahmen wird aus Reynolds-853-Stahl hergestellt. Durch die kathodische Tauchbadbeschichtung ist der Rahmen im höchsten Maße korrosionsbeständig. Dazu kommt eine Boost Starrgabel mit einer Einbaubreite von 110mm, die optisch wie vom Fahrverhalten perfekt zum Fahrrad passt; eine optimale Ergänzung sind außerdem die serienmäßigen Träger.
It can be built from a choice of Reynolds tubesets including 631, 725 and 853. Rourke Framesets Reynolds 631 frameset — from £1,100. Rourke Framesets offer a wide choice of steel bikes with a selection of tubesets available to meet different budgets. The custom frame business is headed up by Brian Rourke who has 25 years of road racing experience, and uses this expertise to provide a full. Woodrup Primo ohne Gabel Reynolds 853 / 1400 Euro, Sportivo ohne Gabel Reynolds 853 / 1320 Euro, das war richtig lecker, leider sahen die Fotos in der Tour eher nach Titan aus. Zitieren. G. Gelöschtes Mitglied 6536. 16 Januar 2014 #8 Die Gabel würde ich nachträglich auch noch in Rahmenfarbe lackieren lassen. Ansonsten schick. Zitieren . whitewater Aktives Mitglied . Registriert 27 Juli. Exklusivität wird hier groß geschrieben, angefangen beim traumhaft schönen, für die Ewigkeit gemachten 29-Titan-Rahmen, endend bei der hochexklusiven Ausstattung. Dafür sind dann fast 7000 Euro fällig. Auch am Hardtail kostet das Besondere eben extra. Mit Salsa und Surly runden zwei US-Kultmarken das Feld ab. Beides Marken, die seit jeher den berühmten Blick über den Tellerrand hinaus. RSD: HA 68 BB 320 CS 425 Reynolds 853 Stanton Slackline: HA 68 BB 315 CS 415 Was Reynolds 853, now 631 Cotic BFe HA 68.6 BB 319 CS 420 Reynolds 853 with Cromol
There's different types of steel. I still have my Lemond which is a Reynolds 853 frame. It's a lot lighter than Chromoly and even smoother. Also, if you want a smoother ride, consider upgrading your wheels to ones with a reduced spoke count. Not only will they save you weight, but they're much better at absorbing road bumps and vibrations. Reply. Bike Noob says. April 29, 2012 at 8:57 pm. Das Rennstahl 853 Gravel kann mit Shimano- oder SRAM-Gruppen geordert werden; dazu kommen Rennstahl- oder Tune-Laufräder mit Steckachsen. Neben den standardmäßigen Syntace-Anbauteilen bieten wir ein Titan-Paket. Für mehr Kontrolle im Gelände empfehlen wir die breiter bauenden Gravel Lenker mit 18 oder 25 Grad flare. € 3.954,00. Anfrage senden. Konfiguration drucken. RESET. Modell. Lets look at the strongest steel cycle tube in the world, Reynolds 853. This tubing is made of a complex Chrome-Moly alloy. The tube is cold drawn, i.e. forced though a die at quite staggering pressure, then though rollers to give the final tube size and wall thickness. So here we have a basic tube about twice as strong as mild steel, and with twice the yield strength (the point at which it. The real feel of steel; the Crown Jewel blends Reynolds 853 and True Temper OX Platinum to rival the weight and strength of titanium and carbon fiber. The ride quality of steel is still the benchmark to which all other materials are gauged. Fully sealed top tube, down tube, seat stay, and chainstay keep the water out while the refined, race proven design and size specific tubing assures. Rocky Mountain Blizzard: Material Reynolds 853 CroMoly 2180g 18,5 EDIT: 2001 18,5 2140g Reynolds 853 2002 18,5 2180g Reynolds 853 2003 18,0 1310g Reynolds 853 ist in der Redaktion wohl vom Vertex Team SC die Angabe reingerutsch. 2004 18,0 1950g Reynolds 853 2005 18,0 2000g Reynolds 853 so nun bin ich müde und mach was anderes... Yetis. Dabei seit 8. März 2002 Punkte für Reaktionen 1.